Introduction

AORTA

The Aorta

Ashley Davidoff MD

Copyright The Common Vein 2014

Aorta and Circulation

The heart and lungs are positioned at the centre of all the organs in the body and they are understandably considered vital organs. Think of yourself as a little red cell within the vast and powerful environment of the circulatory system. Listen and feel the power of the pulse and the rush of all the rivers going back and forth, hither and thither, and around and around – imagine what goes on inside the system all the time – it is probably like walking through a rain forest with huge waterfalls, winding rivers and rivulets – a mixture of gushing power and calm meandering flow- but the colors are reds and blues instead of greens and yellows! Courtesy Ashley Davidoff MD 32059 code cardiac heart circulation artery vein introduction drawing Davidoff art

Aorta and Circulation

The heart and lungs are positioned at the centre of all the organs in the body and they are understandably considered vital organs. Think of yourself as a little red cell within the vast and powerful environment of the circulatory system. Listen and feel the power of the pulse and the rush of all the rivers going back and forth, hither and thither, and around and around – imagine what goes on inside the system all the time – it is probably like walking through a rain forest with huge waterfalls, winding rivers and rivulets – a mixture of gushing power and calm meandering flow- but the colors are reds and blues instead of greens and yellows!

Courtesy Ashley Davidoff MD 32059d01 code cardiac heart circulation artery vein introduction drawing Davidoff art

 

Red White and Blue

39533 This image combines the coronal view with the axial view and reflects the intimate relationships that the adrenals have with the kidneys as well as the great vessels of the abdomen. They literally have their fingers on the pulse of the aorta (red overlay)and the inferior vena cava (IVC) (blue overlay) code adrenal kidney relations anatomy Davidoff art

 

End Point of the Arterial Circulation is at the Capillaries and is also the Beginning of the Venous Circulation

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A Simple Tube

72845.800 aorta flow principles structure laminar flow turbulent flow normal Davidoff Art Courtesy Ashley Davidoff MD 72835.800 72839 72831.800 72845.800 49483b01

 

The aorta is curved in shape and elastic in nature while blood is not a simple fluid and hence special circumstances exist
72831.800 aorta flow principles structure laminar flow turbulent flow normal tube Davidoff Art Courtesy Ashley Davidoff MD 72835.800 72839 72831.800 72845.800 49483b01

 

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Note the difference in the pressures between the left side of the circulation and the right. The left ventricular pressure reaches a systolic of 120mmHg, while the right atrial pressure is close to zero. This large difference allows blood to flow through the circulation. pressure principles
49483b01 heart cardiac LV left ventricle aorta aortic systemic circulation capillary capillaries arterioles venules right atrium RA right ventricle RV normal physiology pressures hemodynamics Davidoff MD Davidoff art

 

Major Forces

A Pump, Elasticity, Peripheral Resistance and a Sump

72839 Davidoff Art Courtesy Ashley Davidoff MD 72835.800 72839 72831.800 72845.800 49483b01

 

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Laminar flow

This diagram reflects the laminar flow showing the almost parallel lines of flow that is characteristic of flow in the smaller tubes. Under resting conditions, laminar flow exists from the medium-sized bronchi onward down to the bronchioles. During exercise, the air flow is accelerated, and laminar flow may be confined only to the very small airways.Courtesy Ashley Davidoff MD 42433b04.jpg

 

Parabolic Flow – Highest Velocity in Center and Lowest on the Endothelium

47678d05 aorta blood flow principles velocity parabolic Laminar flow is the normal condition for blood flow throughout most of the circulatory system. characterized by concentric layers of blood move in parallel down the length of a blood vessel. highest velocity (Vmax) isin the center of the vessel. lowest velocity (V=0) is along the vessel wall. T flow profile is parabolic occurs in long, straight blood vessels, under steady flow conditions. Davidoff art Courtesy Ashley Davidoff MD

 

Parabolic Flow – Highest Velocity in Center and Lowest on the Endothelium

47678f12.800 aorta blood flow principles velocity parabolic Laminar flow is the normal condition for blood flow throughout most of the circulatory system. characterized by concentric layers of blood move in parallel down the length of a blood vessel. highest velocity (Vmax) isin the center of the vessel. lowest velocity (V=0) is along the vessel wall. T flow profile is parabolic occurs in long, straight blood vessels, under steady flow conditions. Davidoff art Courtesy Ashley Davidoff MD

 

Turbulent flow
This drawing shows the lines and circles of noisy turbulent flow, which is characteristic of flow in the larger airways.Courtesy of Ashley Davidoff M.D. 42434b07

 

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Histology – Key to Aortic Function is its Elastic Layer (teal)

The Innermost Layer is the Endothelium and Outermost is the Adventitia

47678.800 Davidoff MD

 

The Shape of Big Red
47676 aorta aortic valve sinotubular junction ascending aorta aortic arch brachiocephalic artery left common carotid artery left subclavian artery descending aorta normal TCV Davidoff MD

Candy Cane Shape of the Arch

47677c03 candy cane shape aorta aortic valve sinotubular junction ascending aorta aortic arch descending aorta normal

The Aortic Annulus (red ring) and Aortic Valve

47681 heart cardiac aortic valve aorta right atrium right atrial appendage left atrial appendage LAA RAA pulmonary valve right ventricular outflow tract left atrium LA RA RVOT anatomy normal position relations Davidoff art Davidoff MD

Aortic Annulus is attached to the Crux of the Heart 01669b04 heart cardiac embryology conal septum line drawing right atrium left atrium left ventricle right ventricle interatrial septum interventricular septum atrioventricular septum crux of the heart embryology anatomy Davidoff drawing Davidoff MD 01667b04 01667b04 01667b06 01667b07 01667b09 01667b14 01669b03